Ceremonies

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church discipline health Mass monasticism objects Office persons pontifical sacerdotal X Sacraments yearly cycle
Label Latin keywords Short description
Agatha Agathae Blessings performed on the feast of St Agatha (February 5) in Spain, e.g. water, bread and fruit, prayer for protection against fire.
agriculture benedictio seminum, area, areae, agrorum, agro, seminis, seminum, segetum, segetes, terrae seminatae (seu plantatae) primitias, sancti Marci (evangelistae), fruges, frumenti, terrae benedicendae, Litani* Maior* Blessings in connection with agriculture, sowing and harvesting, the blessing of seeds and crops; the blessing of wheat on the feast of St Mark the Evangelist (April 25: Paderborn, Palencia, Esztergom, Sacerdotale Romanum); the feast of St Rupert (March 27: Girona, Urgell); the feast of St Aegidius (September 1: Cuenca, Segovia) or the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin (September 8: Prague).
alms eleemosynae, eleemosynarum, eleemosynam, agapem pauperum The blessing of alms.
Ash Wednesday cineris, cinerum, cineres, caput, capite ieiunii, capite Quadragesimae, feria quarta Extraordinary rites (beyond the Mass and the Office Hours of the day) in connection with Ash Wednesday: blessing of ashes, distribution of ashes, dismissal of penitents or a simplified version of the ceremony.
Assumption Day Assumptione, Assumptionis, beatae, Mariae, Virginis Blessings performed on Assumption Day (August 15), especially that of herbs and fruits, peculiar to Germany, Denmark, Poland, Bohemia and Hungary (cf. herbs).
banner vexilli, vexilla, vexillorum, vexillum, vestis crucis The blessing of banners, flags, and other military insignia.
Baptism catechumenum faciendum, baptism*, baptiz*, catechiz*, infant*, catechumen*, benedictio fontis, ordo baptisterii, scrutinii, auri* apertio Baptism and its preparatory rites: blessing of water, (in certain cases) of the baptismal font, introductory scrutinies (apertio aurium). Emergency and conditional Baptisms. Generally not separately indexed within the rites of the Easter Vigil.
bath lavacrum, balnei, sabonis The blessing of a bath or its place, peculiar to Poland.
Blasius Blasii Rites of blessing for the feast of St Blaise: fruit, bread, salt, wine, seeds, wax, for the health of animals or against illnesses of the throat (in Spain), blessing of apples against illnesses of the throat (in Hungary).
bloodletting minutio* sanguinis Prayer before bloodletting (a traditional medical practice to which spiritual benefits were also attributed).
candle cere*, candel*, lumin* The simple blessing of candles, wax or lampions beyond Candlemas or Holy Saturday ceremonies.
Candlemas Purificatio*, candela*, cere*, Hypapanti, Transfixio The blessing of candles and procession on the feast of Candlemas (February 2).
child ad induendum puerum sive puellam, benedictio(ne) puerorum, puerulum tonsurandum, puer*, infant* Rites pertaining to children, especially their blessing or their votive initiation (vesting or tonsure) into monasticism.
childbirth post partum, mulierem, mulieris, mulieres, mulier, introductio, introducendum mulierem, fetus in utero, purificandis, purificatione, puerpera, puerperas, sterilitate, sterilitatem The most typical rite regarding childbirth is the churching of women (i.e. the reintroduction of a mother into church, theoretically 40 days after childbirth, according to the principles of the Torah (Lev 12:1-8) and the example of the Blessed Virgin (Lk 2:22-40). Less widespread are the rites against impotence (as a matrimonial impediment) and those against perils during pregnancy or birth. Such instances may occur after the rite of matrimony, without a special label.
Christmas Eve nocte, galli cantu, Nativitat*, initium, finito nono responsorio, Iudicii signum, Sybill* Extraordinary rites (beyond the Mass and the Office Hours of the day) in connection with Christmas Eve. According to Matthew, the first Mass of the feast was customarily celebrated during the night at the end of Matins and before the Genealogy, while Lauds was sung between the Communion and the Postcommunion, without chapter, hymn and versicle. This collocation followed different arrangements in each Use and special liturgical items were often included.
communion de sacramento Eucharistiae, Eucharistiae sacrament*, Eucharistia, corpus Christi, communion*, communica*, sanos Reception of Holy Communion by the congregation (e.g. at Easter). First Communion (a very short ordo inbetween Baptism and Confirmation) is usually not indexed.
Confession confit*, confess*, absolutio*, absolv* Sacrament of Confession, formulas for confession and absolution, instructions for penitents and priests.
contagion pest*, animalium, animalibus, pecoribus, pecora, pro aquis infectis, ovium, pro avibus, contra febres; leprosos, leprosum, leprosorum, eiiciendi, separandi, separandum, contra pestem, tempore (mortalitatis et) pestis, tempore pestilentiae, pro peste pellenda Procession, oration or preces (short petitions) used in the case of a contagion (epidemic or plague), the blessing of salt and water to be given to sick animals, oration to heal a sick animal. Purification of infected water, ejection and separation of lepers, orations against pestilence.
|- pest locustas, locustae, bruchum, bruchi, animal corrosivum, animalia destruentia, animalia noxia, vermes, erucas, aves, pro avibus, mures, volucres, nociva animalia The blessing of crops against pests (locust etc.).
|- leper leprosos, leprosum, leprosorum, eiiciendi, separandi, separandum Separation and ejection of lepers, typical in French Uses.
|- epidemic contra pestem, tempore (mortalitatis et) pestis, tempore pestilentiae, pro peste pellenda Orations given against or in the case of an epidemic (pestilence, plagues).
|- health of animals in peste animalium, pecoribus, animalium, pro animalibus infirmantibus, pecora, ovium, pestem animalium, pro avibus Prayer for the healing of sick animals, blessing of salt to be given to sick animals, often connected to the major blessing of water (cf. major blessing of water).
|- famine tempore famis Orations, preces, processions for use in case of famine, often as a part of votive supplications for various intentions.
Corpus Christi (in festo) (sanctissimi) Corporis Christi, Sacramenti A procession on the feast of Corpus Christi, sometimes including a solemn reading of the beginning of the four Gospels at four stations.
craftsman benedictio artificis The blessing of a craftsman.
cross crucis, crucem, crucium The blessing of a cross or crucifix.
Easter Sunday Paschae, Pascha, paschali, paschalis, paschalium, Resurrectionis, Resurrectione, agni, carnium, visitatio* sepulcri, Quem quaeritis Easter Sunday procession, extraordinary supplements at the end of Matins, Easter play, Baptismal Vespers, blessings of food (cf. the label "victuals", and especially "lamb").
|- Baptismal Vespers Kyrie eleison, ad fontem, ad crucem, ad vesperas Special Vespers celebrated during the Octave of Easter, from Sunday to Friday when Vespers were divided: following the first three psalms, Gradual, Alleluia (Sequence) and the Magnificat, a procession was led to the Baptistery (ad fontes). After observing a thanksgiving station the procession returned to its place of origin while singing the last two psalms, sometimes standing in front of a Cross (ad crucem). Processional Alleluias, antiphons and responsories completed the chanted material. Instances of such are generally not separately indexed within Easter Sunday.
enterprise initium alicuius operis boni, initium boni operis Oration given before beginning an activity of great importance and moral value.
Epiphany Epiphaniae, Theophaniae, stellae Extraordinary rites (beyond the Mass and the Office Hours of the day) in connection with Epiphany, e.g. Epiphany play, proclamation of Easter and other movable feasts, the blessing of water, insertions towards the end of Matins and the Genealogy of Luke.
exodiastic rites visitandum, infirm*, mortuorum, inunguendum, unguendum, extrema* unction*, unguantur, extrema*, commendatio*, anima*, recommendatio, defunct*, morien*, exsequi*, sepultura*, depositione, sepeliend*, agone Rites concerning one's departure (exodus) from this earthly life, borrowed from the inclusive French term "les rites exodiastiques". The category includes the visitation and communion of the sick, anointing the sick, commendation of the soul, agony, expiration, keeping vigil by the deathbed, burial.
|- communion of the sick communicandum infirmum, communione infirmorum, infirmis, Eucharistia*, corpus Christi, viaticum Administering Holy Communion to the sick or dying.
exorcism exorcis*, daemon*, vexa*, obsess*, adiuratio, expelle*, malefici*, diabolo, domus a daemonio vexatae Rite of exorcism, both of an obsessed person and of a house where diabolical vexation (infestation) has been discovered. Minor exorcisms within the context of baptismal rites, or blessings of materials and objects are not listed here.
fields terminos, termini, villae The blessing of fields, in certain sources on the feast of the Invention of the Cross (May 3, in Spain).
fire ignis The blessing of fire on dates other than Candlemas or Holy Saturday.
gift munus, muneris, offertur, offerat, offert The blessing of gifts presented by laymen in and for the benefit of a church.
gold frankincense myrrh turis, tus, myrrhae, thymiamatis, aurum, auri, trium (munerum), Epiphaniae The blessing of frankincense, myrrh, and possibly gold on Epiphany.
Good Friday Parasceve, Parasceves, Parasceven, Popule meus, feria sexta, feriae sextae, salutatio* Crucis, adoratio Crucis, Veneris Good Friday liturgy, adoration of the cross, placing the Eucharist in the holy sepulchre, Tenebrae (Night Office on Good Friday).
Gospel beginnings initia quattuor evangeliorum, Initium sancti Evangelii, initia, initiis, quattuor, evangelia The opening passages of the four Gospels which are read at the processions on Rogation Days and Corpus Christi. As a separate chapter at the end of the book, they are peculiar to German Rituals.
Holy Saturday cerei, cerei paschalis, cereum, Sabbato Sancto, fontis, fontium, fontes, fontem, vigilia Paschae, ignis, ignem Rites of the Easter Vigil, i.e. the blessing of fire and of the Paschal Candle (Exsultet), procession to the baptismal font, the blessing of baptismal water, often Baptism and Confirmation (not labelled separately) and the following Mass. Occasionally, the blessing of frankincense or of food.
house domum, domus, domo, domi, domorum, loci The blessing of houses.
incense incensi, turibuli, thymiamatis The blessing of incense or of an incensor (thuribulum). See also the Holy Saturday ceremonies (the blessing of incense after the blessing of fire) and the dedication of a church (thuribulum among the utensils).
litany litania, Kyrie eleison Litany, most often at the blessing of baptismal water on Holy Saturday or during the visitation of the sick (generally not separately indexed).
matrimony sponsalia, de sacramento matrimonii (Spain), benedictio sponsi et sponsae, sponsum et sponsam, sponsalium, matrimoni*, sponsa*, nuptiis, nuptia*, nubent*, benedictio anuli (cf. bishop, virgin, nun), modus copulandi (Poland), desponsa*, coniugibus, coniunctionis, nubere, copulam, thalami, lecti, inthronizatio (Rhineland). The rite of Matrimony, Nuptial Mass, often with the Proper for the feast of Holy Trinity and often with a Mass Ordinary, the blessing of the nuptial chamber or bed, introduction of a new wife into the church, instructional and legal texts.
Maundy Thursday feria quinta, Cena Domini, Cenae, feriae quintae, die Iovis Sancta The extraordinary rites of Maundy Thursday, i.e. night Office (Tenebrae), reconciliation of penitents, Chrism Mass, evening Mass of Maundy Thursday with integrated Vespers, the washing of feet (Mandatum), the stripping and washing of the altar, procession to the holy sepulchre. In monastic or canonical sources a supper may be included. The short desciptions and keywords of these ceremonies are found separately.
|- Chrism Mass chrisma, chrismatis, chrismalis, ipso die sonentur campanae ad missam, consecrationes oleorum, consecrationem olei infirmorum, consecratio olei Chrism Mass on Maundy Thursday, celebrated by the bishop. It contained the blessing of the oil of the sick, of the catechumens and the chrism between the end of the Canon and the Communion. Rites pertaining to the solemn reception of the sacred oils at a parish church are indicated with the same label.
|- reconciliation of penitents reconciliatio penitentium, reconciliatione, die absolutionis/reconciliationis, reconciliand* paenitente*, paenitent* Penitentiary (reconciliatory) rite on Maundy Thursday in which the bishop ceremonially receives the penitents back into the church.
|- stripping/washing of altars exspoliare altaria, altaria abluenda, denudetur altare, denudent altaria, nudata altaria laventur, lavantur altaria, lavent altaria, "Diviserunt sibi" The stripping and washing of altars on Maundy Thursday (currently not separately indexed in the majority of sources, please cf. Maundy Thursday).
|- washing of feet (ad) mandatum, mandato, mandati, pedum, pedes The rite of the washing of feet on Maundy Thursday (Mandatum).
|- Tenebrae Zelus domus tuae, Feria quinta, In Cena Domini, in/de nocte, officium, ad matutinum/matutinas Special night Offices (Matins and Lauds) or their regulations during the Sacred Triduum.
meal mensa, mensae, mensam, ante cibum, annum The blessing of dishes before meals, and thanksgiving afterwards, usually in monastic contexts with seasonal variants.
minor expulsion of penitents expulsio An abridged variant of the pontifical ejection of penitents on Ash Wednesday, celebrated by an ordinary priest, usually on the Monday of the Holy Week in some Bavarian and Bohemian Uses.
monk monach*, eremitae, canonic*, regular*, fraternitate, fratribus, novitiorum, profession*, includend*, reclusum, recludendi, induendum puerum sive/vel puellam, puerum tonsurandum, capillaturam infantuli, renuntiantibus saeculo The different stages of monastic (religious) life: votive vesting and unvesting of children, reception into the monastery, beginning the noviciate, clothing ceremony (reception of the religious habit), ceremonial taking of vows.
nun moniali*, sanctimoniali*, famulam Dei The blessing of a nun, different from the solemn consecration of virgins (cf. virgin).
oil olei, oleorum, unguenti The blessing of normal oil (usually for healing purposes) different from those consecrated on Maundy Thursday (cf. Chrism Mass).
ordeals iudici*, discussio, adiuratio, ferri, case* Ancient religious-judicial practices to determine the truth or the will of God. Not supported by the official ecclesiastical establishment they became obsolete in the Middle Ages. Ordeals most often included trial by red-hot iron and (cold) water, sometimes hot water, or bread and cheese.
oven/furnace benedictio rafurni, clibani, furnelli, lapiscoctorii The blessing of an oven or furnace.
Palm Sunday Ramis Palmarum, Ramispalmarum, palmas, ramos, ramis, ramorum, palmarum, florum, frondium, olivae, arborum, Dominica in Palmis, die Palmarum, Palmis, Dominica Indulgentiae The extraordinary rites of Palm Sunday before the introit of the daily Mass (Domine ne longe facias). Although very different in each Use, they consist of the following modules: (1) blessing of palm or olive branches, flowers etc. and their distribution, (2) procession, (3) station with gestures of adoration, (4) solemn entry into the city, the church or its precinct.
Paschal prayers ad vesperas, ad fontem/fontes, ad crucem, in reversione, revert* A set of at most three additional orations from Easter Sunday to the Friday of its octave. They were originally recited at the stations of the baptismal procession (cf. Baptismal Vespers) but survived separately in Missals after the postcommunions of each day.
penance confessio generalis, confessio*, forma(e) absolutionis/-num, absolutio*, paenitentia generalis, de sacramento paenitentiae, ad dandam paenitentiam, paenitent*, paenitudinis, indulgentiae, modus absolv The Sacrament of Penance and related rites, excepting the ceremonies on Ash Wednesday and Maundy Thursday.
pilgrimage benedictio perae et baculi, pera*, bacul*, benedictio peregrinorum, peregrin*, pergere, sporta*, capsella*, itinere, fustes, iter agentibus, de itinere, sanctae terrae, limina sanctorum The blessing of pilgrims, travellers, crusaders, including their gear (bag, satchel, basket, staff).
places of a monastery in granario, in caminata, in cellario, in sacrario, dormitorio, refectorio, coquina, in horrea, in atrio, in ferramentario, in domo infirmorum, introitum monasterii, in ecclesia maxima The blessing of parts, rooms, and chambers of a monastery (e.g. dormitory, kitchen, stores, sacristy etc.) usually in the context of the sprinkling of holy water on Sundays.
procession processio*, statio*, ad aspersionem, circuitu(s) Texts or regulations for processions in general terms or for single days of the liturgical year. More remarkable processional ordines have their own labels, e.g. Candlemas, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Rogation Days, Corpus Christi etc.
Rogation Days Litania* Maior*, Litani*, Rogationum, Rogationibus, Marci Minor rogations (litanies) on the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday before the Ascension, major rogations (litanies) on the feast of St Mark the Evangelist (April 25). Processions are held on these days with litanies, supplicatory and expiatory prayers. Usual Mass Propers are not indexed here, only those of the processional rites. For the blessing of wheat on St Mark's day cf. agriculture.
ship/anchor/fishing benedictio (novae) navis, navis novae, navem, navi, navium, anchor*, rete, retis, retia The blessing of a ship, an anchor or other objects in connection with navigation and fishing.
soldier/sword benedictio ensis, milit* ensis, armorum, clypei/scuti et baculi, armandum, exercitus The blessing of soldiers or arms.
statue/painting imaginis, imaginum, imaginem The blessing of a painting or statue of the Blessed Virgin or another saint.
supplications preces dominicales, preces, recommendationes, post offertorium, necessitate, necessitatibus, tribulatione, orationes (diversarum rerum), pro victoria, pro regibus, pro regnantibus, pro papa, pro salute, preces, precationes, oratio devota A series of supplicatory orations of various intentions, sometimes prayed in the vernacular after the Offertory of a Sunday Mass (a practice more characteristic of Western regions). In general terms, all piacular services which should be celebrated in case of vicissitudes belong here, cf. contagion, epidemic, famine, peace, weather.
|- weather contra (imminentem) tempestatem, contra tempestates, (contra) fulgura, fulgurum, pluvia, pluviam, tempestatem, tempestates, serenitatem, aurae, auram, grandinis Votive, impetratory orations or processions for rain or clement weather, against tempests or hailstorms.
|- heretic/pagan infidel*, haeres*, haeretic*, paganos, paganorum, schizm*, apostatam, Turcas, catholici, iudaismo, gentilitate, gentilem Rite of reception for heretics and pagans, and prayers against Turks (Muslims) and other unbelievers.
|- peace tempore belli, pro pace, pacem Orations for use in time of war (for obtaining peace), often listed as part of 'supplications'.
thanksgiving gratiarum actio/actiones/actione A votive prayer or ceremony to render thanks, express gratitude.
vessels vasa (nova), vasorum, antiquo loco reperta The blessing of non-sacral (non-liturgical) vessels, often of an archeological article.
victuals omnia quae(cumque) volueris, generalis, communis, victualium, cibariorum, ciborum, esculentorum, comestibil* The general blessing of food or specific blessing of certain foods, such as meat, eggs, cheese, fish, some are also labelled separately, e.g. bread, wine, cabbage etc. Most often on Easter Sunday, sometimes such blessings form a series.
|- bread panis The blessing of bread: Sunday (Spain, Salisbury, York, Chalons-en-Champagne), on the feast of St Lupus (Girona, Urgell), or most commonly without specifying the day. A special blessing of bread sometimes occurs in the context of nuptial ceremonies (cf. matrimony).
|- cabbage raphani The blessing of cabbage: on the feast of the Chair of St Peter (at Antioch, February 22) or on Ash Wednesday (Breslau/Wrocław).
|- fodder avenae, die sancti Stephani, pabuli The blessing of oates and other kinds of fodder on the feast of St Stephen Protomartyr (December 26).
|- grape uvae, uvarum, Transfigurationis, Sixti, Xysti The blessing of grapes, usually on the feast of St Sixtus or the Transfiguration (August 6), often with the blessing of legumes (e.g. bean, fig). Its traditional place during the Mass is before the end of the Canon.
|- fruits fructuum, fructu*, (benedictio) pomorum, benedictio novarum frugum, fruges, frugum, poma The blessing of fruits.
|- wine vini, vinum, amoris, sancti Ioannis (evangelistae), vinagii The blessing of a vineyard or wine, primarily on the feast of St John the Apostle and Evangelist (December 27).
|- fennel fenicul*, faenicul*, Aegidii The blessing of fennel on the day of St Aegidius (September 1), peculiar to Eastern dioceses of the Iberian Peninsula.
|- herbs herbarum, herbas, herbis The blessing of herbs: in German territories on the feast of the Assumption (August 15), elsewhere on the feast of St Peter (Strasbourg), or on the feast of the Beheading of St John the Baptist (August 29, Osma, Pamplona).
|- bean benedictio uvae vel/sive fabae The blessing of beans, always in connection with the blessing of grapes.
|- lamb agni The blessing of the Easter lamb on the morning of Easter Sunday. It is usually the first and most important item in a longer series of blessings of victuals.
Vigil of Whitsun vigilia Pentecostes, sabbato (sancto) Pentecostes Extraordinary rites on the Vigil of Pentecost with prophecies, a procession and the blessing of the baptismal font (reflecting those of the Vigil of Easter).
water aqu* The blessing of water beyond the minor and major blessing and that of infected water, e.g. blessing with the merging of a cross, for healing purposes, Carmelite blessing of St Albert, etc.
|- major blessing of water maior, salis et aquae The most solemn form of blessing water. On the vigil of Epiphany (Prague, Olomouc, Litomyšl, Esztergom), Sunday after the Octave of Pentecost (Augsburg), feast of St Stephen Protomartyr (Aquileia, Salzburg, Aosta, Bressanone), feast of St Peter in Chains (Strasbourg), or the feast of the Invention of the Cross (all others). Exorcisms and orations are often doubled, a prex (prayer in the form of a Preface) follows, and the water can be drunk after the rite, contrary to the minor blessing. The rite is usually performed in an agricultural context and connected to the aspersion of animals against sickness (cf. health of animals).
|- minor blessing of water benedictio* aquae, diebus dominicis, dominicis diebus, benedictio salis, exorcismus salis, benedicend* aqua*, aqua* benedict*, die dominica, minor The shorter form for the exorcism and blessing of salt and water, and their mixture, usually assigned to Sundays. The rite is often accompanied by ritual aspersion.
|- infected water aquis infectis Purification of infected water.
well benedictio (novi) putei (novi) The blessing of a well.