USUARIUM

A Digital Library and Database for the Study of Latin Liturgical History in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period

Ceremonies

? - Records without any existing label or repeated instances of the previous label in the examined source.
abbess abbatissae, abbatissam The benediction of an abbess.
abbot abbatis, abbatem, abbatum, abbas The benediction of an abbot.
Agatha Agathae Blessings performed on the feast of St Agatha (February 5) in Spain, e.g. water, bread and fruit, prayer for protection against fire.
agriculture benedictio seminum, area, areae, agrorum, agro, seminis, seminum, segetum, segetes, terrae seminatae (seu plantatae) primitias, sancti Marci (evangelistae), fruges, frumenti, terrae benedicendae, Litani* Maior* Blessings in connection with agriculture, sowing and harvesting, the blessing of seeds and crops; the blessing of wheat on the feast of St Mark the Evangelist (April 25: Paderborn, Palencia, Esztergom, Sacerdotale Romanum); the feast of St Rupert (March 27: Girona, Urgell); the feast of St Aegidius (September 1: Cuenca, Segovia) or the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin (September 8: Prague).
alms eleemosynae, eleemosynarum, eleemosynam, agapem pauperum The blessing of alms.
altar altaris, altarium, altare, tabulae, tabulam, lapidis itinerarii, lapidis portatilis Consecration of main altars, side altars, and portable altars. Generally not separately indexed within the consecration of churches.
Ash Wednesday cineris, cinerum, cineres, caput, capite ieiunii, capite Quadragesimae, feria quarta Extraordinary rites (beyond the Mass and the Office Hours of the day) in connection with Ash Wednesday: blessing of ashes, distribution of ashes, dismissal of penitents or a simplified version of the ceremony.
Assumption Day Assumptione, Assumptionis, beatae, Mariae, Virginis Blessings performed on Assumption Day (August 15), especially that of herbs and fruits, peculiar to Germany, Denmark, Poland, Bohemia and Hungary (cf. herbs).
banner vexilli, vexilla, vexillorum, vexillum, vestis crucis The blessing of banners, flags, and other military insignia.
Baptism catechumenum faciendum, baptism*, baptiz*, catechiz*, infant*, catechumen*, benedictio fontis, ordo baptisterii, scrutinii, auri* apertio Baptism and its preparatory rites: blessing of water, (in certain cases) of the baptismal font, introductory scrutinies (apertio aurium). Emergency and conditional Baptisms. Generally not separately indexed within the rites of the Easter Vigil.
Baptismal Vespers Kyrie eleison, ad fontem, ad crucem, ad vesperas Special Vespers celebrated during the Octave of Easter, from Sunday to Friday when Vespers were divided: following the first three psalms, Gradual, Alleluia (Sequence) and the Magnificat, a procession was led to the Baptistery (ad fontes). After observing a thanksgiving station the procession returned to its place of origin while singing the last two psalms, sometimes standing in front of a Cross (ad crucem). Processional Alleluias, antiphons and responsories completed the chanted material. Instances of such are generally not separately indexed within Easter Sunday.
Baptistery baptisterii, lapidis fontium, fontis The blessing of a baptistery or its renewed blessing after renovation.
bath lavacrum, balnei, sabonis The blessing of a bath or its place, peculiar to Poland.
bean benedictio uvae vel/sive fabae The blessing of beans, always in connection with the blessing of grapes.
beard barbam, barbas Trimming of beards, a part of clerical tonsure.
bell signum ecclesiae, signi, campana*, cymbal*, metall*, timpani, tintinnabula Consecration or blessing of bells.
Benedictional incipiunt benedictiones Epsicopal triple blessing with the conclusion "Quod ipse praestare dignetur" etc., normally a longer series for the feasts of the liturgical year.
bishop episcopum, episcopi, episcoporum, episcopo, pontificis Consecration of a bishop.
Blasius Blasii Rites of blessing for the feast of St Blaise: fruit, bread, salt, wine, seeds, wax, for the health of animals or against illnesses of the throat (in Spain), blessing of apples against illnesses of the throat (in Hungary).
blessings before lessons benedictiones, absolutio* Short verses recited by the celebrant over the reader who is about to sing the lessons of Matins and asks for a blessing with the phrase "Iube, domne, benedicere". After receiving the blessing, the congregation answers: "Amen". Before each triple series, a short oration may be found with the title "absolutio".
bloodletting minutio* sanguinis Prayer before bloodletting (a traditional medical practice to which spiritual benefits were also attributed).
bread panis The blessing of bread: Sunday (Spain, Salisbury, York, Chalons-en-Champagne), on the feast of St Lupus (Girona, Urgell), or most commonly without specifying the day. A special blessing of bread sometimes occurs in the context of nuptial ceremonies (cf. matrimony).
cabbage raphani The blessing of cabbage: on the feast of the Chair of St Peter (at Antioch, February 22) or on Ash Wednesday (Breslau/Wrocław).
calendar Kalendarium, Ianuarius, annus habet, prima dies mensis, pocula Ianus amat The calendar of feasts observed at a given location.
candle cere*, candel*, lumin* The simple blessing of candles, wax or lampions beyond Candlemas or Holy Saturday ceremonies.
Candlemas Purificatio*, candela*, cere*, Hypapanti, Transfixio The blessing of candles and procession on the feast of Candlemas (February 2).
Canon of the Mass Te igitur, canon, iunctis manibus, inclinet se Canon (Canon Missae, Canon Actionis) is traditionally used in the Roman Missal as the name for the fundamental part of the Mass (after the Offertory and before the Communion). The term Canon (kanon) means a norm or rule; and is used in various contexts, the website uses it exclusively for the consecratory, specifically sacerdotal prayer within the Eucharistic Liturgy.
catechism - Various kinds of texts regarding the instruction of faith.
cemetery cimiterii, cimiterium, cimiteria The consecration of a cemetery. A cemetery is meant to serve not only as a burial site but also as the sacred precinct where a church is to be built.
child ad induendum puerum sive puellam, benedictio(ne) puerorum, puerulum tonsurandum, puer*, infant* Rites pertaining to children, especially their blessing or their votive initiation (vesting or tonsure) into monasticism.
childbirth post partum, mulierem, mulieris, mulieres, mulier, introductio, introducendum mulierem, fetus in utero, purificandis, purificatione, puerpera, puerperas, sterilitate, sterilitatem The most typical rite regarding childbirth is the churching of women (i.e. the reintroduction of a mother into church, theoretically 40 days after childbirth, according to the principles of the Torah (Lev 12:1-8) and the example of the Blessed Virgin (Lk 2:22-40). Less widespread are the rites against impotence (as a matrimonial impediment) and those against perils during pregnancy or birth. Such instances may occur after the rite of matrimony, without a special label.
Chrism Mass chrisma, chrismatis, chrismalis, ipso die sonentur campanae ad missam, consecrationes oleorum, consecrationem olei infirmorum, consecratio olei Chrism Mass on Maundy Thursday, celebrated by the bishop. It contained the blessing of the oil of the sick, of the catechumens and the chrism between the end of the Canon and the Communion. Rites pertaining to the solemn reception of the sacred oils at a parish church are indicated with the same label.
Christmas Eve nocte, galli cantu, Nativitat*, initium, finito nono responsorio, Iudicii signum, Sybill* Extraordinary rites (beyond the Mass and the Office Hours of the day) in connection with Christmas Eve. According to Matthew, the first Mass of the feast was customarily celebrated during the night at the end of Matins and before the Genealogy, while Lauds was sung between the Communion and the Postcommunion, without chapter, hymn and versicle. This collocation followed different arrangements in each Use and special liturgical items were often included.
church dedicatio*, dedicanda, ecclesia*, basilicae, domus Dei, domus Domini, reliquiae Consecration of a church, including: (1) Circling the church thrice, knocking on the church gate, dialogue with the deacon. (2) Entering the church, writing the Greek and Latin alphabet into ashes on the floor. (3) The blessing of the so-called St Gregory water (blessed water mixed with blessed salt, ashes and wine). (4) The blessing of the altar, walls and floor with St Gregory water (which is often followed by the blessing of liturgical articles, such as altar cloths, vestments). (5) Consecration of the altar and walls with Holy Chrism. (6) Introduction of relics into the church which are then buried within the altar. The laying and blessing of the foundation stone at the beginning of construction does not belong here, nor does the blessing of the cemetery.
cleric clericum faciendum, clericis faciendis, clerico faciendo The making of a cleric. Generally not separately indexed within ordinations.
colophon finit, explicit, finis, impressum Typical formula at the end of a book (mostly printed) containing information on the place, date, circumstances of its composition and the persons responsible for it.
commemorations commemoratio*, suffragi*, memori* Prayers that mostly consist of an antiphon, versicle (sometimes omitted) and oration, recited after the final collect of the Office hours. They regularly commemorate either certain devotional intentions or the suppressed feasts of the actual day. Every main hour can be "condensed" into a commemoration with its Gospel-antiphon, versicle and collect.
Commune Masses commune sanctorum, commune apostolorum, vigilia unius apostoli The sections of service books that contain the common part of the Mass Propers, i.e. the items which can be applied to different feasts according to the type or character of the venerated saint. The traditional parts of the Commune are that of the apostles, martyrs, confessors and virgins but these can be divided (one or more), detailed (e.g. evangelists, bishops, abbots), and supplemented (e.g. widows, holy women).
Commune Offices commune sanctorum, commune apostolorum, vigilia unius apostoli The parts of service books that contain the common part of the Office Propers (see the definition at Commune Masses).
communion de sacramento Eucharistiae, Eucharistiae sacrament*, Eucharistia, corpus Christi, communion*, communicand*, sanos Reception of Holy Communion by the congregation (e.g. at Easter). First Communion (a very short ordo inbetween Baptism and Confirmation) is usually not indexed.
communion of the sick communicandum infirmum, communione infirmorum, infirmis, Eucharistia*, corpus Christi, viaticum Administering Holy Communion to the sick or dying.
computus tabula, comput*, aureus numerus, littera* dominicalis, festorum mobilium, cycl*, bissextil* Various tables and rules intended to help the use of the calendar and its accessories, especially to determine the date of Easter and other movable feasts.
Confession confit*, confess*, absolutio*, absolv* Sacrament of Confession, formulas for confession and absolution, instructions for penitents and priests.
Confirmation confirm*, consignand*, signandos, chrismandis, consecrandos pueros, consecrationem infantium, consecratio chrismalis Sacrament of Confirmation, often only a short supplement at the end of the baptismal rites.
contagion pest*, animalium, animalibus, pecoribus, pecora, pro aquis infectis, ovium, pro avibus, contra febres; leprosos, leprosum, leprosorum, eiiciendi, separandi, separandum, contra pestem, tempore (mortalitatis et) pestis, tempore pestilentiae, pro peste pellenda Procession, oration or preces (short petitions) used in the case of a contagion (epidemic or plague), the blessing of salt and water to be given to sick animals, oration to heal a sick animal. Purification of infected water, ejection and separation of lepers, orations against pestilence.
Corpus Christi (in festo) (sanctissimi) Corporis Christi, Sacramenti A procession on the feast of Corpus Christi, sometimes including a solemn reading of the beginning of the four Gospels at four stations.
craftsman benedictio artificis The blessing of a craftsman.
cross crucis, crucem, crucium The blessing of a cross or crucifix.
deaconess diaconam, diaconissam, diaconissae The blessing of a deaconess.
decree nos, reverendissimus in Christo Pater, Dei et apostolicae sedis gratia The introductory decrees of service books in which the responsible prelate declares the importance of the book and imposes its use on his clergy.
Dedication Mass Dedication*, ecclesiae, templi, altaris, anniversario, Terribilis Mass Propers for the dedication of churches and altars or the anniversary of such an event. Dedication Mass is labelled separately because it can be found in different contexts: at the end of the Temporal, in the Votive part etc. It is generally not indexed as the concluding element of the dedication rites.
Dedication Office Dedicatione ecclesiae, templi Office Propers for the dedication of churches and altars or the anniversary of such an event (cf. Dedication Mass).
defects and cautions aliqua remedia, remedium, informationes, cautelae, observandae presbytero volenti divina celebrare, negligentiae, accidentia, pericul*, casus, casibus, defect*, Rubrics on problems that may emerge during the celebration of a Mass and on the possible ceremonial difficulties that require the celebrant's special attention.
degradation and restitution degradatione, degradationis, degradantur, reconciliandi, reconciliationis, reconciliari Degradation and restitution of clerics from or into their prior state.
Easter Sunday Paschae, Pascha, paschali, paschalis, paschalium, Resurrectionis, Resurrectione, agni, carnium, visitatio* sepulcri, Quem quaeritis Easter Sunday procession, extraordinary supplements at the end of Matins, Easter play, Baptismal Vespers, blessings of food (cf. the label "victuals", and especially "lamb").
emperor imperatorem Consecration and coronation of an emperor.
empress imperatricem, imperatricis Consecration and coronation of an empress or empress mother.
enterprise initium alicuius operis boni, initium boni operis Oration given before beginning an activity of great importance and moral value.
epidemic contra pestem, tempore (mortalitatis et) pestis, tempore pestilentiae, pro peste pellenda Orations given against or in the case of an epidemic (pestilence, plagues).
Epiphany Epiphaniae, Theophaniae, stellae Extraordinary rites (beyond the Mass and the Office Hours of the day) in connection with Epiphany, e.g. Epiphany play, proclamation of Easter and other movable feasts, the blessing of water, insertions towards the end of Matins and the Genealogy of Luke.
excommunication and reconciliation excommunica*, absolutio*, absolvendi, absolvendis, reconcili* Excommunication (of different degrees according to the obstinacy of the trespasser) and reconciliation. Public penitential rites within Ash Wednesday or Maundy Thursday ceremonies are not indexed here.
exodiastic rites visitandum, infirm*, mortuorum, inunguendum, unguendum, extrema* unction*, unguantur, extrema*, commendatio*, anima*, recommendatio, defunct*, morien*, exsequi*, sepultura*, depositione, sepeliend*, agone Rites concerning one's departure (exodus) from this earthly life, borrowed from the inclusive French term "les rites exodiastiques". The category includes the visitation and communion of the sick, anointing the sick, commendation of the soul, agony, expiration, keeping vigil by the deathbed, burial.
exorcism exorcis*, daemon*, vexa*, obsess*, adiuratio, expelle*, malefici*, diabolo, domus a daemonio vexatae Rite of exorcism, both of an obsessed person and of a house where diabolical vexation (infestation) has been discovered. Minor exorcisms within the context of baptismal rites, or blessings of materials and objects are not listed here.
famine tempore famis Orations, preces, processions for use in case of famine, often as a part of votive supplications for various intentions.
fennel fenicul*, faenicul*, Aegidii The blessing of fennel on the day of St Aegidius (September 1), peculiar to Eastern dioceses of the Iberian Peninsula.
fields terminos, termini, villae The blessing of fields, in certain sources on the feast of the Invention of the Cross (May 3, in Spain).
fire ignis The blessing of fire on dates other than Candlemas or Holy Saturday.
fodder avenae, die sancti Stephani, pabuli The blessing of oates and other kinds of fodder on the feast of St Stephen Protomartyr (December 26).
foundation stone lapidis, lapidem, funda*, primarii, primum, primarium, "Nemo ecclesiam aedificet" Laying and blessing of a foundation stone where a church is to be built. The rite differs from both the blessing of a cemetery and from the dedication of a church.
fruits fructuum, fructu*, (benedictio) pomorum, benedictio novarum frugum, fruges, frugum, poma The blessing of fruits.
Genealogy Genealogia, Liber generationis, Initium sancti Evangelii secundum Matthaeum, Factum est autem Solemn reading of the Genealogy of Christ on Christmas Eve (Gospel of Matthew) and on Epiphany (Gospel of Luke) after the ninth responsory at Matins. Their melodies were usually special tones of the Gospel recitation.
general rubrics - Extensive rubrics on general topics of the liturgy, e.g. the regular way of celebrating Mass and Office Hours, liturgical colours, hierarchy of feasts, conclusions of orations, etc.
gift munus, muneris, offertur, offerat, offert The blessing of gifts presented by laymen in and for the benefit of a church.
gold frankincense myrrh turis, tus, myrrhae, thymiamatis, aurum, auri, trium (munerum), Epiphaniae The blessing of frankincense, myrrh, and possibly gold on Epiphany.
Good Friday Parasceve, Parasceves, Parasceven, Popule meus, feria sexta, feriae sextae, salutatio* Crucis, adoratio Crucis, Veneris Good Friday liturgy, adoration of the cross, placing the Eucharist in the holy sepulchre, Tenebrae (Night Office on Good Friday).
Gospel beginnings initia quattuor evangeliorum, Initium sancti Evangelii, initia, initiis, quattuor, evangelia The opening passages of the four Gospels which are read at the processions on Rogation Days and Corpus Christi. As a separate chapter at the end of the book, they are peculiar to German Rituals.
gradual psalms quindecim, grad*, psalmi The fifteen, so-called gradual psalms (119-133), traditionally chanted by Jewish pilgrims while ascending the stairs of the Temple of Jerusalem. In a Christian context, they were recited in three groups for the clergy, the faithful, and the departed. Each group consisted of five psalms, preces, and an oration.
grape uvae, uvarum, Transfigurationis, Sixti, Xysti The blessing of grapes, usually on the feast of St Sixtus or the Transfiguration (August 6), often with the blessing of legumes (e.g. bean, fig). Its traditional place during the Mass is before the end of the Canon.
health of animals in peste animalium, pecoribus, animalium, pro animalibus infirmantibus, pecora, ovium, pestem animalium, pro avibus Prayer for the healing of sick animals, blessing of salt to be given to sick animals, often connected to the major blessing of water (cf. major blessing of water).
herbs herbarum, herbas, herbis The blessing of herbs: in German territories on the feast of the Assumption (August 15), elsewhere on the feast of St Peter (Strasbourg), or on the feast of the Beheading of St John the Baptist (August 29, Osma, Pamplona).
heretic/pagan infidel*, haeres*, haeretic*, paganos, paganorum, schizm*, apostatam, Turcas, catholici, iudaismo, gentilitate, gentilem Rite of reception for heretics and pagans, and prayers against Turks (Muslims) and other unbelievers.
Holy Saturday cerei, cerei paschalis, cereum, Sabbato Sancto, fontis, fontium, fontes, fontem, vigilia Paschae, ignis, ignem Rites of the Easter Vigil, i.e. the blessing of fire and of the Paschal Candle (Exsultet), procession to the baptismal font, the blessing of baptismal water, often Baptism and Confirmation (not labelled separately) and the following Mass. Occasionally, the blessing of frankincense or of food.
Hours of the Virgin horae, parvae, parvum, officium, commemoratio*, histori*, beatae Mariae Virginis, de beata Maria Virgine, de Domina A set of seasonal Offices in honour of the Blessed Virgin, also known as the Little Office since it contained only one nocturn (three psalms) for Matins. It was recited as a regular supplement to the daily Office, however some nuns and especially lay people would often pray it instead of the canonical Hours of the day.
house domum, domus, domo, domi, domorum, loci The blessing of houses.
Hymnal hymn* A series of hymns for the Divine Office according to the annual cycle but arranged in a separate chapter of the book.
illustration - Any illustration (miniature, woodcut, painting, etc.) of greater significance, especially at the beginning and the end of certain books, the Crucifixion before the Canon in Missals, initial letters of high ranking feasts. Fully decorated books are not indexed in detail.
inauguration of parish priest plebani, inthronizatio, introductio The inauguration of a new parish priest.
incense incensi, turibuli, thymiamatis The blessing of incense or of an incensor (thuribulum). See also the Holy Saturday ceremonies (the blessing of incense after the blessing of fire) and the dedication of a church (thuribulum among the utensils).
infected water aquis infectis Purification of infected water.
interdict interdicto, interdicti Ecclesiastical (canonical) censure prohibiting certain individuals, groups, and territories from the celebration and/or reception of Sacraments and sacramentals.
juridical formulas forma, formula, modus, litterae, signand*, testament*, certificat* Official formulas to be used in legal affairs by a parish priest, e.g. to certify a testimony, a letter of good-conduct, to enter something into the parish register, etc. These formulas are peculiar to Rituals from the late 16th century onwards.
king regem, regis, regum, rege, rex, ad regem benedicendum, coronandum The coronation of a king.
L'endit indict* Processional opening of a market special to St-Denis at Paris.
lamb agni The blessing of the Easter lamb on the morning of Easter Sunday. It is usually the first and most important item in a longer series of blessings of victuals.
leper leprosos, leprosum, leprosorum, eiiciendi, separandi, separandum Separation and ejection of lepers, typical in French Uses.
litany litania, Kyrie eleison Litany, most often at the blessing of baptismal water on Holy Saturday or during the visitation of the sick (generally not separately indexed).
major blessing of water maior, salis et aquae The most solemn form of blessing water. On the vigil of Epiphany (Prague, Olomouc, Litomyšl, Esztergom), Sunday after the Octave of Pentecost (Augsburg), feast of St Stephen Protomartyr (Aquileia, Salzburg, Aosta, Bressanone), feast of St Peter in Chains (Strasbourg), or the feast of the Invention of the Cross (all others). Exorcisms and orations are often doubled, a prex (prayer in the form of a Preface) follows, and the water can be drunk after the rite, contrary to the minor blessing. The rite is usually performed in an agricultural context and connected to the aspersion of animals against sickness (cf. health of animals).
Marian antiphons antiphon*, de beata Virgine, post completorium A special type of commemoration in honour of the Blessed Virgin, sung after the conclusion of the Office Hours or after the entire daily Office had been completed, i.e. the Compline. There were several such items besides the most famous Roman antiphons (Alma Redemptoris Mater, Ave Regina caelorum, Regina caeli, Salve Regina). These had an above-average emotional or lyrical character both in melody and text (often taken or paraphrased from the Canticles of Solomon).
Mass ordinary ordo missae, accessus altaris, acced*, ascend*, ad altare, sacerdos indutus, Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Pater noster The ordinary prayers of the Holy Mass, or parts of them, in Rituals often in a Nuptial Mass with the Proper of the feast of Holy Trinity, in Pontificals in the context of the Chrism Mass on Maundy Thursday. The Canon of the Mass is also listed under this label.
Mass Propers missa The series of variable orations (oratio, collecta, secreta/superoblata, postcommunio/complenda), chants (introitus, graduale, Alleluia, tractus, sequentia, offertorium, communio), and readings (prophetia, lectio/epistola, evangelium) of the Mass. In Mass books (Missals, Sacramentaries, Graduals, Mass Lectionaries) Propers form the bulk of the book's content. In Pontificals or Rituals, Mass Propers feature as the setting for a votive Mass or something alike, but at times they contain a complete Missal or an entire section from the Missal.
matrimony sponsalia, de sacramento matrimonii (Spain), benedictio sponsi et sponsae, sponsum et sponsam, sponsalium, matrimoni*, sponsa*, nuptiis, nuptia*, nubent*, benedictio anuli (cf. bishop, virgin, nun), modus copulandi (Poland), desponsa*, coniugibus, coniunctionis, nubere, copulam, thalami, lecti, inthronizatio (Rhineland). The rite of Matrimony, Nuptial Mass, often with the Proper for the feast of Holy Trinity and often with a Mass Ordinary, the blessing of the nuptial chamber or bed, introduction of a new wife into the church, instructional and legal texts.
Maundy Thursday feria quinta, Cena Domini, Cenae, feriae quintae, die Iovis Sancta The extraordinary rites of Maundy Thursday, i.e. night Office (Tenebrae), reconciliation of penitents, Chrism Mass, evening Mass of Maundy Thursday with integrated Vespers, the washing of feet (Mandatum), the stripping and washing of the altar, procession to the holy sepulchre. In monastic or canonical sources a supper may be included. The short desciptions and keywords of these ceremonies are found separately.
meal mensa, mensae, mensam, ante cibum, annum The blessing of dishes before meals, and thanksgiving afterwards, usually in monastic contexts with seasonal variants.
minor blessing of water benedictio* aquae, diebus dominicis, dominicis diebus, benedictio salis, exorcismus salis, benedicend* aqua*, aqua* benedict*, die dominica, minor The shorter form for the exorcism and blessing of salt and water, and their mixture, usually assigned to Sundays. The rite is often accompanied by ritual aspersion.
minor expulsion of penitents expulsio An abridged variant of the pontifical ejection of penitents on Ash Wednesday, celebrated by an ordinary priest, usually on the Monday of the Holy Week in some Bavarian and Bohemian Uses.
monk monach*, eremitae, canonic*, regular*, fraternitate, fratribus, novitiorum, profession*, includend*, reclusum, recludendi, induendum puerum sive/vel puellam, puerum tonsurandum, capillaturam infantuli, renuntiantibus saeculo The different stages of monastic (religious) life: votive vesting and unvesting of children, reception into the monastery, beginning the noviciate, clothing ceremony (reception of the religious habit), ceremonial taking of vows.
nun moniali*, sanctimoniali*, famulam Dei The blessing of a nun, different from the solemn consecration of virgins (cf. virgin).
Office of the Dead vigiliae, agenda, mortuorum, defunctorum, animarum A special Proper of the Divine Office for departed souls, also known from its first antiphon as the "Placebo". The Office contained only the first Vespers and Matins (including Lauds), omitting almost all parts that are also absent from the Hours of the Paschal Triduum. It was recited as a regular supplement to the daily Office, besides use on the actual day of burial and All Souls.
Office ordinary Psalterium, ordo, officii, horarum The basic structure of the Divine Office, including the elements of both its daily and weekly cycle.
Office Propers ad vesperas, in vesperis, antiphona The variable parts of the Divine Office beyond the weekly cycle of the Psalter and its supplements, i.e. the genres recited by the celebrant (capitulum, oratio), the chants (antiphona, responsorium, hymnus, versiculus), and the lessons (lectio, sermo, evangelium, homelia, vita, legenda). See the analogous definition at Mass Propers.
Office supplements psalmi graduales, paenitentiales, commemoratio*, memoria*, suffrag* Supplementary material to the basic structure of the Divine Office.
officium capituli martyrologi*, capitul*, regul*, necrologi* Liturgical supplement to the Hour of Prime, usually consisiting of the following: reading of the martyrology, collatio (opening prayers for the daily conference of the community), absolution of the chapter, reading of the Rule (substituted in secular evironments with short lessons), reading of the necrology.
oil olei, oleorum, unguenti The blessing of normal oil (usually for healing purposes) different from those consecrated on Maundy Thursday (cf. Chrism Mass).
ordeals iudici*, discussio, adiuratio, ferri, case* Ancient religious-judicial practices to determine the truth or the will of God. Not supported by the official ecclesiastical establishment they became obsolete in the Middle Ages. Ordeals most often included trial by red-hot iron and (cold) water, sometimes hot water, or bread and cheese.
ordinations Clericum faciendum, sacr* ordin*, capillos tonendos, faciendum clericum, ordinand*, cleric* faciend*, septem (ecclesiastic*) grad*, ordinatio*, ordinibus, ordines, "Accedant qui ordinandi sunt", ecclesiastici The Sacrament of Holy Orders by several degrees: institution of a porter (ostiarius), lector, exorcist, acolyte, and subdeacon; ordination of a deacon, priest (presbyter), and bishop. Beforehand: tonsure, institution of a cleric or a cantor.
oven/furnace benedictio rafurni, clibani, furnelli, lapiscoctorii The blessing of an oven or furnace.
Palm Sunday Ramis Palmarum, Ramispalmarum, palmas, ramos, ramis, ramorum, palmarum, florum, frondium, olivae, arborum, Dominica in Palmis, die Palmarum, Palmis, Dominica Indulgentiae The extraordinary rites of Palm Sunday before the introit of the daily Mass (Domine ne longe facias). Although very different in each Use, they consist of the following modules: (1) blessing of palm or olive branches, flowers etc. and their distribution, (2) procession, (3) station with gestures of adoration, (4) solemn entry into the city, the church or its precinct.
Paschal prayers ad vesperas, ad fontem/fontes, ad crucem, in reversione, revert* A set of at most three additional orations from Easter Sunday to the Friday of its octave. They were originally recited at the stations of the baptismal procession (cf. Baptismal Vespers) but survived separately in Missals after the postcommunions of each day.
paten and chalice patenam consecrandam, consecrandam/-dum patenam, patenam, patenae, calicis Consecration of a paten and chalice.
peace tempore belli, pro pace, pacem Orations for use in time of war (for obtaining peace), often listed as part of 'supplications'.
penance confessio generalis, confessio*, forma(e) absolutionis/-num, absolutio*, paenitentia generalis, de sacramento paenitentiae, ad dandam paenitentiam, paenitent*, paenitudinis, indulgentiae, modus absolv The Sacrament of Penance and related rites, excepting the ceremonies on Ash Wednesday and Maundy Thursday.
penitential psalms (septem) psalmi paenitentiales/pentitentiali The seven penitential psalms (Ps 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, 142), also known as the series "Domine, ne in furore", if recited in the context of the Divine Office. They were usually a Lenten supplement to weekday Hours.
pest locustas, locustae, bruchum, bruchi, animal corrosivum, animalia destruentia, animalia noxia, vermes, erucas, aves, pro avibus, mures, volucres, nociva animalia The blessing of crops against pests (locust etc.).
pilgrimage benedictio perae et baculi, pera*, bacul*, benedictio peregrinorum, peregrin*, pergere, sporta*, capsella*, itinere, fustes, iter agentibus, de itinere, sanctae terrae, limina sanctorum The blessing of pilgrims, travellers, crusaders, including their gear (bag, satchel, basket, staff).
places of a monastery in granario, in caminata, in cellario, in sacrario, dormitorio, refectorio, coquina, in horrea, in atrio, in ferramentario, in domo infirmorum, introitum monasterii, in ecclesia maxima The blessing of parts, rooms, and chambers of a monastery (e.g. dormitory, kitchen, stores, sacristy etc.) usually in the context of the sprinkling of holy water on Sundays.
pope Romanus pontifex Inauguration and blessing (coronation) of a newly elected pope.
preces preces, maiores, minores, Kyrie, Ego dixi, Vivet anima mea, In pace in idipsum A series of versicles, beginning with Kyrie and Pater noster and concluding with Domine exaudi, Dominus vobiscum, Oremus and one or more orations. It is usually associated with Lenten weekdays or other penitential, piacular (expiatory), supplicatory rites. A psalm is often included in its last section.
Prefaces praefatio Being less variable than the Mass Propers but more changing than the Mass ordinary, Prefaces often form a separate chapter before the Canon of the Mass. In the classical period of the Roman rite, there were 11 such items, usually provided with musical notations for both ferial and solemn tones. Prefaces which are parts of a set of Propers are not indexed here.
preparation and vesting for Mass (sacerdos) praeparat se, praeparare, praeparatio*, celebrare missam, celebratione, celebraturus est, celebrationem missam, celebrandam/-dum missam, abbas pontificalia induit, speculum sacerdotum/celebrantis, The preparatory and vesting prayers of the priest before celebrating Holy Mass. In pre-Tridentine sources, no strict separation of these preparatory prayers and the beginning of the Mass ordinary can be found.
procession processio*, statio*, ad aspersionem, circuitu(s) Texts or regulations for processions in general terms or for single days of the liturgical year. More remarkable processional ordines have their own labels, e.g. Candlemas, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Rogation Days, Corpus Christi etc.
Psalter Psalterium, David*, invitatorium, Venite, dominic* An independent genre or a part of the Breviary containing the Book of Psalms (either in its biblical or liturgical order) and all other items to be recited within the weekly cycle of the Divine Office.
queen regina, reginam, reginae The coronation, and blessing of a queen, usually at the end of the coronation of a king.
reconciliation of penitents reconciliatio penitentium, reconciliatione, die absolutionis/reconciliationis, reconciliand* paenitente*, paenitent* Penitentiary (reconciliatory) rite on Maundy Thursday in which the bishop ceremonially receives the penitents back into the church.
reconciliation of violated church reconciliatio violatae ecclesiae, reconciliatio* ecclesiae, reconciliand* (violatam) ecclesiam, contingerit ecclesiam violari, reconciliatio* altaris Rededication (consecration) of a desecrated church, altar or cemetery.
Rogation Days Litania* Maior*, Litani*, Rogationum, Rogationibus, Marci Minor rogations (litanies) on the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday before the Ascension, major rogations (litanies) on the feast of St Mark the Evangelist (April 25). Processions are held on these days with litanies, supplicatory and expiatory prayers. Usual Mass Propers are not indexed here, only those of the processional rites. For the blessing of wheat on St Mark's day cf. agriculture.
Sanctoral Masses de sanctis, proprium sanctorum, sanctorale, incipit, vigilia sancti Andreae, Stephan* protomartyr*, in natali, natale, festo Mass Propers within the liturgical calendar that can be linked to specific months and dates of the year, not only the feasts of saints. However, the days from the Vigil of Christmas to the octave of Epiphany are traditionally included in the Temporal part. The placement of the saints in-between (from St Stephen Protomartyr to Hilarius of Poitiers) is unsteady.
Sanctoral Offices proprium sanctorum, de sanctis, sanctorale, incipit, sequitur, historia, pars, hiemalis, aestivalis, de sancto, in festo, vigilia sancti Andreae Office Propers within the liturgical calendar which can be linked to specific months and dates of the year, see the definition of Sanctoral Masses.
secular dignitaries comitis Palatini, regem, regis, rege, regin*, imperator*, imperatr* Inauguration or installment of secular dignitaries, mostly emperor/empress and king/queen but in some cases also lower ranks.
Sequentional sequentia, sequentiae, sequentionale, sequentionarium, prosa, prosae, prosarium, in Adventu, in Nativitate A collection of Mass Sequences (hymnical genre sung between the Alleluia and Gospel), either as part of a liturgical book (Missal) or as a separate volume. All separate sequences are indexed here, even if these do not form a complete Sequentional, however sequences found within the set of each Mass Proper are not indexed.
ship/anchor/fishing benedictio (novae) navis, navis novae, navem, navi, navium, anchor*, rete, retis, retia The blessing of a ship, an anchor or other objects in connection with navigation and fishing.
soldier/sword benedictio ensis, milit* ensis, armorum, clypei/scuti et baculi, armandum, exercitus The blessing of soldiers or arms.
statue/painting imaginis, imaginum, imaginem The blessing of a painting or statue of the Blessed Virgin or another saint.
stripping/washing of altars exspoliare altaria, altaria abluenda, denudetur altare, denudent altaria, nudata altaria laventur, lavantur altaria, lavent altaria, "Diviserunt sibi" The stripping and washing of altars on Maundy Thursday (currently not separately indexed in the majority of sources, please cf. Maundy Thursday).
supplications preces dominicales, preces, recommendationes, post offertorium, necessitate, necessitatibus, tribulatione, orationes (diversarum rerum), pro victoria, pro regibus, pro regnantibus, pro papa, pro salute, preces, precationes, oratio devota A series of supplicatory orations of various intentions, sometimes prayed in the vernacular after the Offertory of a Sunday Mass (a practice more characteristic of Western regions). In general terms, all piacular services which should be celebrated in case of vicissitudes belong here, cf. contagion, epidemic, famine, peace, weather.
synod/council synodus, synodo, synodi, concilium The order of holding a synod, liturgical elements for the days of a synod.
tabernacle scrinium, scrinii, arcam, arcae, capsam, capsas, scrindola, tabernaculi, vasculi, Eucharistia(m) conservanda(m) Benediction of a tabernacle or aumbry, including any vessel for the keeping of consecrated hosts (Eucharist).
table of contents capituli, continentur, annotationes, nuncupatur, index, tabula, registrum, repertorium A table or index of content, lists of liturgical items, feasts etc.
Temporal Masses incipit, proprium de tempore, dominical*, dominica prima, Adventus/Adventu Domini Mass Propers within the liturgical year that are linked either to special seasons of the liturgical year (Advent, Christmastide, Epiphanytide, Septuagesima, Lent, Eastertide etc.) or to specific days of the week, contrary to Sanctoral Masses that are linked to months and dates.
Temporal Offices proprium de tempore, temporale, dominicale, feriale, breviar*, pars, hiemalis, aestivalis, Advent*, Septuagesim*, Pasch* All Office Propers within the liturgical year that are linked either to special seasons of the liturgical year or to specific days of the week. See the definition of Temporal Masses. If interrupted by sections of the Sanctoral, each new beginning of the Temporal is separately indexed.
Tenebrae Zelus domus tuae, Feria quinta, In Cena Domini, in/de nocte, officium, ad matutinum/matutinas Special night Offices (Matins and Lauds) or their regulations during the Sacred Triduum.
thanksgiving gratiarum actio/actiones/actione A votive prayer or ceremony to render thanks, express gratitude.
thanksgiving after Mass gratiarum actio, oratio(nes) post missam, post celebrationem, finita missa, recessu(s) altaris, Placeat, Trium puerorum The concluding devotional prayers of the priest after receiving Holy Communion and celebrating Holy Mass (during adoration or while leaving the altar or unvesting). In pre-Tridentine sources, no strict separation between thanksgiving and the closing items of the Mass ordinary can be found.
title page Missale, Breviarium, Manuale, Ordo missalis, Liber The front page of printed or certain luxury manuscript service books with the original title, illustrations, information on the execution, distribution and purpose of the book.
tonsure capillaturam, capillarum, capillos tonendos, tonsuram A sacred rite (but not an ordination) instituted by the Church to receive a baptized and confirmed Christian into the clerical state by the shearing of his hair and his investment with the cassock and surplice.
travel/visitation/reception ad recipiendum, recipiendi, recipiendo, praelatum, legatum, legatorum, suscipiendum, susceptionem, receptione, visitatione, visitationis, visitandi, intrat aliquam civitatem vel oppidum Visitation and reception of an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary (e.g. nuncio, ambassador, bishop, pope, king, queen, emperor).
utensils corporal* linteamin*, sindonem, pallam, pallae, capsarum, (eucharistialis) vasculi, vasa, vasorum, ornamenta, ornamentorum, mapparum, ciborii, umbraculi, ampullae, librorum, in usum basilicae The blessing of instruments used in churches (cloths, linen, recepticles and other utensils), often within the consecration of a church, in such cases they are not separately indexed.
vessels vasa (nova), vasorum, antiquo loco reperta The blessing of non-sacral (non-liturgical) vessels, often of an archeological article.
vestments vestimentorum sacerdotalium, vestimenta sacerdotalia, vestium sacerdotalium, sacerdotalium indumentorum, indumentorum sacerdotalium, indument*, vestium (sacrarum), vestes (sacras), alba*, planeta* The blessing of liturgical vestments, religious habits, episcopal garments or penitentiary sackcloths, often in the context of the consecration of a church, in such cases it is not always separately indexed.
victuals omnia quae(cumque) volueris, generalis, communis, victualium, cibariorum, ciborum, esculentorum, comestibil* The general blessing of food or specific blessing of certain foods, such as meat, eggs, cheese, fish, some are also labelled separately, e.g. bread, wine, cabbage etc. Most often on Easter Sunday, sometimes such blessings form a series.
Vigil of Whitsun vigilia Pentecostes, sabbato (sancto) Pentecostes Extraordinary rites on the Vigil of Pentecost with prophecies, a procession and the blessing of the baptismal font (reflecting those of the Vigil of Easter).
virgin consecratio (sacrarum) virginum, consecratio (sacrae) virginis, virginum, virgines, virginalis Consecration and clothing of virgins, primarily on Epiphany, the days following Easter or the feasts of the Apostles. The rite is performed by a bishop in a solemn cloistered context and differs from the more simple ceremonies at the taking of wows, cf. nun.
Votive Masses missae votivae, communes, generales, speciales, familiares, aliquae, pro, contra, in honore, missa devota, sancti Gregorii, memori*, commemoratio* Holy Masses outside of the cycle of the liturgical year, offered for a votum, that is, a special intention, or, for instance, in honour of some mystery of the faith, the Blessed Virgin, or other saints. A votive Mass usually does not correspond to the Divine Office appointed for the day on which it is celebrated. Some Votive Masses were steadily incorporated into the Temporal, e.g. De lancea at clavis Domini, De angelo custode.
Votive Offices officium, horae, de passione Domini, sanctae Crucis, beati Iacobi, Patris Sapientia Votive Offices were recited ex voto, that is, in fulfillment of a special devotion or intention. Such Offices – not being part of the general calendar and hence different from the one proper for the given day – were optional in principle, even if they were considered obligatory to the petitioners (e.g. a diocese or a religious order) to whom the concession had been made. The Hours of the Virgin and the Office of the Dead are listed separately because in the Middle Ages they were an obligatory appendix to the Canonical Hours. Additional short offices commemorating the passion of Christ or the compassion of Mary (e.g. the series Patris Sapientia) are considered as exceptional cases of votive offices and are listed here.
washing of feet (ad) mandatum, mandato, mandati, pedum, pedes The rite of the washing of feet on Maundy Thursday (Mandatum).
water aqu* The blessing of water beyond the minor and major blessing and that of infected water, e.g. blessing with the merging of a cross, for healing purposes, Carmelite blessing of St Albert, etc.
weather contra (imminentem) tempestatem, contra tempestates, (contra) fulgura, fulgurum, pluvia, pluviam, tempestatem, tempestates, serenitatem, aurae, auram, grandinis Votive, impetratory orations or processions for rain or clement weather, against tempests or hailstorms.
well benedictio (novi) putei (novi) The blessing of a well.
widow viduae, viduas, viduam The consecration of a widow, including the taking of vows and vesting.
wine vini, vinum, amoris, sancti Ioannis (evangelistae), vinagii The blessing of a vineyard or wine, primarily on the feast of St John the Apostle and Evangelist (December 27).